This website will teach you the basic things to help you start your wonderful survival world.
A basic thing to know is the modes of difficulty. If you are new to minecraft and don't want to start something challanging it would be best if you started a single player world on either peaceful or easy mode. Peaceful is what I would recomend for starters if your feeling a bit scared to deal with hostile mobs etc. Hardcore mode is when there is a lot of hostile mobs that deal a lot of dammage when they attack you. Best if you start off with normal mode or something like peaceful or easy mode.